Our website uses cookies. We use cookies to remember settings and to help provide you with the best experience we can. We also use cookies to continuously improve our website by compiling visitor statistics. Read more about cookies

PINOCCHIO (multiple types of cancer)

Clinical study in children on the metabolism, distribution and excretion of chemotherapy in the body, also called pharmacokinetics.
Who can enter
  • Children receiving chemotherapy or Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors (TKIs) as standard of care
  • Age ≤18 years for stratum I and ≤21 years for stratum II


In the PINOCCHIO study we investigate to what extent a young child's body handles chemotherapy and TKIs differently than an adult or older child's body. We do so by measuring the concentration of the drug in the blood. This allows us to find out if the dose needs to be adjusted for children.

In Stratum I, we do this for nine commonly used chemotherapy agents: carboplatin, cisplatin, cytarabine, dactinomycin, daunorubicin, doxorubicin, etoposide, methotrexate, and vincristine.

In stratum II we do this for different TKIs (ALK, BCR-ABL, MEK, VEGFR, EGFR, FLT3 and NTRK inhibitors).


Most of the information on the use of chemotherapeutic agents and TKIs is based on research in adults. However, this information is also used for children, without knowing whether this is correct for this patient group.

A child's body is in full development during the first years of life. As a result, the metabolism, distribution, and excretion of the chemotherapeutic agent or TKI in the body (also known as pharmacokinetics) may be different. The lack of information about how a child’s body processes these drugs may lead to overdosing or underdosing. And as a result: a higher risk or less effectiveness of the treatment.

With this study we want to look at the differences in pharmacokinetics between adults and children of different ages, in order to find out whether the treatment should be adapted for children.

Children participating in this study will have extra blood samples taken at several times after the administration of chemotherapy or TKI. No changes will be made to the chemotherapy or TKI treatment when a child participates in this study.

In order to participate in a study please refer to your/your child’s doctor.

Last reviewed

February 15, 2022