Childhood cancer patients and survivors have an increased risk of frailty, a physiological phenotype characterized by several conditions including sarcopenia (lower muscle mass), lower muscle strength, fatigue, impairments in functional mobility and osteopenia (impaired bone mineral density). These conditions increase susceptibility to disability and impaired survival, andappear more frequently, and decades earlier than in healthy peers. During childhood cancer it is plausible that disease- and treatment-related circumstances enhance the risk of this vulnerable state, directly, during cancer treatment. Early recognition of children with a higher risk of frailty and impaired bone mineral density during and after childhood cancer is important, in order to guarantee early referral for preventive intervention.
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